History of The Paris Catacombs
The Catacombs, the final resting place of 6 million Parisians, are an underground network of tunnels and old-world stone quarries that were converted into a cemetery in the 18th-19th centuries. An eerie, yet celebrated city of the dead, the Catacombs lie silently in stark contrast to the bustling streets of Paris above.
Maze of Underground Tunnels in Paris
The Catacombs occupy only a portion of the tunnels that extend for thousands of miles under the streets of Paris. These tunnels were originally a giant network of limestone quarries that were used throughout history to construct the city of Paris. As the city expanded and grew outwards, the tunnels were abandoned, leaving behind a maze of underground tunnels.
These tunnels have played an important part in Paris’ history - whether it is inspiring Victor Hugo’s Les Misérables or serving as a base for the French resistance during World War II. While most of the tunnels have been cordoned off, the portions that the Catacombs occupy are open to the public. Visitors can buy one-way tickets to visit the underground cemetery, entering the black gates at Avenue du Colonel Henri Rol-Tanguy and exiting in a residential alley next to a gift shop.
History of Catacombs
The history of the Catacombs can be traced all the way back to the times when the banks of the Seine were occupied by the ancient Romans. The area, rich in limestone, had been mined since the 1st century and its stones were used to build the city of Paris. Once the quarries were exhausted, they were haphazardly abandoned and forgotten. Continuing this for centuries left a completely unregulated labyrinth of tunnels beneath the city, leading to numerous cave-in disasters. A series of mine cave-ins in 1774, that began with the collapse of a house along the "rue d'Enfer" caused King Louis XVI to name a commission to map and strengthen the underground tunnels.
At the same time, the cemeteries of Paris were overflowing. The conditions were so bad that effluents from the graves were leaking into the waters of Paris. By the 18th century, Paris had sewage deluging the streets and the water was contaminated. There was no place left to bury the dead as the cemeteries were literally spilling out the dead, including the big cemetery in the center of town, Les Halles. The worst among them was the Saints-Innocents cemetery that held over 2 million bodies. In 1780, a basement wall in a building next to the cemetery collapsed under the weight of the mass grave behind it.
Under these conditions, it was decided that the bodies would be moved to the tunnels that had been strengthened by King Louis XVI. Between 1785 and 1787, millions of bodies were carried out in daily nightly processions from the Les Innocents "clos de la Tombe-Issoire".
By 1809, the new home to the dead called Catacombs had approximately 7 million bodies from more than 150 cemeteries. The larger passageways were lined with countless skeletal remains arranged in various artistic ways. Each room is marked by a plaque that mentions the locations of the cemeteries and the dates on which the bodies were removed and relocated to the Catacombs. After the French Revolution, it was decided to open up the Catacombs for both mourners and visitors.